Vaccination is the introduction of a drug into the human body. It contains antigens of infectious disease pathogens in order to create resistance (immunity) to this pathogen.
During vaccination, an active artificial specific individual immunity is created. It, when meeting with an infectious pathogen, is possible to prevent infection or provide a lighter disease course. As antigens, weakened or killed infectious agents or parts thereof, unable to cause the development of a full-fledged disease, are used.
When a vaccine enters the body, the immune system carefully studies it, remembers it. As a result, it starts to produce special substances to destroy it. Killer substances act selectively. A person develops specific immunity. The vaccine, somehow, “educates” the immune system, preparing it to fight the infection.
Thus, getting into the body, vaccines cause the same rebuilding of the immune system that occurs as a result of a true infection of the disease. A person does not get sick. After such preparation, the entry of infectious agents into the body causes a quick and powerful counteraction of the immune system and the disease does not develop.
Types of vaccines
All vaccines can be divided into 4 groups:
- Live vaccines. They contain a weakened living microorganism. Examples include polio, measles, mumps, rubella or tuberculosis vaccines.
- Inactivated vaccines. They contain either a whole killed microorganism (pertussis, rabies and viral hepatitis A vaccines) or components of the cell wall or other parts of the pathogen (pertussis vaccine and meningococcal infection).
- Anatoxins. Vaccines containing an inactivated toxin (poison) that bacteria produce. An example is a diphtheria and tetanus vaccines.
- Biosynthetic vaccines. These vaccines are obtained by genetic engineering. An example is a vaccine against viral hepatitis B.
To protect against each disease, the most optimal variant of the vaccine is selected.
Route of administration
Vaccines are administered in various ways. The traditional route of administration is intramuscular. Vaccines are often given intradermally, cutaneously or subcutaneously. A series of vaccinations is done through the mouth or the nose. The route of vaccine administration depends on the particular type.
There are permanent contraindications to vaccination and temporary.
Permanent contraindications include:
- individual intolerance to the components of the vaccine. They expressed in severe reactions or complications to the previous vaccine administration;
- immunodeficiency conditions (primary (congenital) or acquired and developed during life); administration of “live” vaccines to such children is contraindicated.
Relative contraindications include acute diseases (for example, acute respiratory viral infections) with fever or exacerbation of the chronic disease.
Vaccination of newborns
Vaccination of newborn babies in the USA is one of the first questions that appear after labor. Someone asks this question long before giving birth in America, someone immediately after, but the question of vaccinations is always relevant.
Doctors and scientists in the United States, for the most part, hold the view that vaccination of children is necessary. The table below shows the standard list of vaccinations that are recommended for children in the United States, as well as the age at which vaccination is recommended.
Among other things, in the USA there is a schedule for vaccination in certain risk groups. They differ in various US states and are not standard.
|Vaccine name||Age group|
|Hepatitis B||labor day, 1-2 months, 6-18 months|
|Rotavirus||2 months, 4 months|
|Whooping-cough, diphtheria, tetanus||2 months, 4 months, 15-18 months, 4-6 years|
|Haemophilus influenza||2 months, 4 months, 12-15 months|
|Pneumococcal disease||2 months, 4 months, 12-15 months|
|Poliomyelitis||2 months, 4 months, 6-18 months, 4-6 years|
|MMR||12-15 months, 4-6 years|
|Сhicken pox||12-15 months, 4-6 years|
|Infectious hepatitis||12-23 months (2 dosages)|
What are the consequences when refused the vaccination?
Your child may get sick with the disease you have refused to be vaccinated. Having become ill, your child can transfer infection (including family members). Despite current legislation, you may be denied admission to kindergarten or school. With quarantine or an epidemic, you may be temporarily denied admission to an educational or recreational institution (until the risk of infection disappears).